Outline of Scientic Method

Charles Johnson sent a comment below and I thought I shoud include my response here:

This page is a work in progess and not completly filled in. I am preparing a very short explanation about the scientific method for those who have not taken many or any college science courses where they would be using this basic information in a K-12 setting. I could see on people’s faces that my explanation was not clear, wo I will get this completed today or tomorrow and paste it at this location. I will also discuss it in class and with any student who is still unclear. Ben Steins movie Expelled goes into detail explaining this is a way everyone can understand, but I want to make certain everyone understands. Good understanding promotes good writing. Thanks for your message. Jan Kollitz – See more at: http://www.jankollitz.com/rcc/outline-scientic-method.html#sthash.C4tY9NsV.dpuf

“This page is a work in progess and not completly filled in. I am preparing a very short explanation about the scientific method for those who have not taken many or any college science courses where they would be using this basic information in a K-12 setting. I could see on people’s faces that my explanation was not clear, wo I will get this completed today or tomorrow and paste it at this location. I will also discuss it in class and with any student who is still unclear. Ben Steins movie Expelled goes into detail explaining this is a way everyone can understand, but I want to make certain everyone understands. Good understanding promotes good writing. Thanks for your message. Jan Kollitz”

Outline of scientific method
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to scientific method:

Scientific method – body of techniques for investigating phenomena and acquiring new knowledge, as well as for correcting and integrating previous knowledge. It is based on observable, empirical, reproducible, measurable evidence, and subject to the laws of reasoning.

Contents

1 Nature of scientific method
2 Elements of scientific method
2.1 Observation
2.2 Hypothesis
2.3 Prediction
2.4 Experiment
2.5 Evaluation
3 History of scientific method
3.1 Publications
3.2 What made the scientific method succeed?
3.3 Why didn’t the scientific method arise elsewhere?
4 Scientific method concepts
4.1 Empirical methods
4.2 Paradigm change
4.3 Problem of induction
4.4 Scientific creativity
4.5 When method goes wrong
4.6 Critique of scientific method
4.7 Use of statistics
4.8 Relationship of scientific method to technology
4.9 Departures from method
5 Persons influential in the development of scientific method
6 See also
7 External links

Nature of scientific method
Scientific method
Three models of theory change.png
Background

Platonic idealism
Logical argument
Bayesian inference

Scientific community

In the Middle Ages
In the Renaissance
Scientific Revolution

Main article: Scientific method

Science
Philosophy of science
Sociology of knowledge
Process
Knowledge

Elements of scientific method
Main article: Research

Laboratory
Laboratory techniques

Observation
Main article: Observation

Methods
Causation
Investigation
Measurement
Solar time vs Sidereal time
Mass vs Weight

Hypothesis
Main article: Hypothesis

Use Occam’s razor to prune the list of hypothetical explanations of the observation.

pro:Karl Popper Falsifiability
con:Paul Feyerabend
Statistical hypothesis testing

Prediction

Prediction – logical inference from a hypothesis
Bayesian inference – subjective use of statistical reasoning
Deductive reasoning–
Retrodiction –

Experiment
Main article: Experiment

Feynman: “We can do anything we want (in theorizing). Then all we have to do is check with the experiment.”

Design of experiments
Scientific control
Natural experiment
Observational study
Field experiment
Self-experimentation
Self-experimentation in medicine
Placebo effect

Evaluation

Test of the inference: prediction and experimentation to establish new facts. Critical examination of the hypothetical explanation:

Peer review by community of scholars, using logic, etc. The wave–particle duality overturned by photoelectric effect.
Peer review unused for cold fusion also the Analysis of the Experiment.
Medical peer review

History of scientific method
History of science
Frontispiece of the “Rudolphine Tables” published by Johannes Kepler in 1627
Background[hide]

Theories and sociology
Historiography
Pseudoscience

By era[hide]

Early cultures
Classical Antiquity
Middle Ages
Renaissance
Scientific Revolution
Romanticism in science

By culture[hide]

African
Byzantine
Chinese

Indian
Medieval Islamic

Natural sciences[hide]

Astronomy
Biology
Botany
Chemistry
Ecology
Evolution
Geology
Geophysics

Paleontology
Physics

Mathematics[hide]

Algebra
Calculus
Combinatorics
Geometry
Logic
Probability
Statistics
Trigonometry

Social sciences[hide]

Anthropology
Economics
Geography
Linguistics
Political science
Psychology
Sociology
Sustainability

Technology[hide]

Agricultural science
Computer science
Materials science

Medicine[hide]

Medicine
Veterinary medicine
Anatomy

Neuroscience
Neurology

Nutrition
Pathology
Pharmacy

Symbol list class.svg Timelines

Portal-puzzle.svg Portal
Folder Hexagonal Icon.svg Category

Main articles: History of scientific method, Timeline of the history of scientific method, and History of science

Publications

Ibn al-Haytham’s Book of Optics
Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine
Roger Bacon’s Opus Majus
Francis Bacon’s Novum Organum

What made the scientific method succeed?

Political factors
Economic factors, such as the technological advances produced by scientists
Effectiveness of the scientific method at producing new knowledge
Other factors
Rediscovery of knowledge from ancient Greek, Arabic and other texts by Europeans, such as during the medieval Latin translation movement and later from the Byzantine Empire after the Fall of Constantinople
Invention of the printing press facilitated knowledge sharing
Protection of the community of scientists who fostered the discoveries
The Protestant Reformation led to secular communities of scholars
Britain was an island nation which enjoyed a long period without invasion or major social upheaval
The American Revolution challenged the existing social order (absolutist monarchies, divine right of kings)

Why didn’t the scientific method arise elsewhere?

China
Greece
India
Korean Peninsula
Malay Archipelago
Mesoamerica
Sub-Saharan Africa

Scientific method concepts
Empirical methods
Main article: Empirical methods

Empiricism
Robert Grosseteste
Peter Parker
Francis Magalona
Bitoy’s method
Empirical validation
Operationalization

Paradigm change

Paradigm, the most unpopular word in English.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn started a new paradigm by telling us about paradigms.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is Kuhn’s book.
Paradigm shift.

Problem of induction

The problem of induction questions the logical basis of scientific statements.

Inductive reasoning appears to lie at the core of scientific method, yet also appears to be invalid.
David Hume was the person who first pointed out the problem of induction.
Karl Popper offered one solution, Falsifiability

Scientific creativity

Linus Pauling “How do I do it? I have a lot of ideas, and throw out the bad ones”.
Isaac Newton’s moon and apple.
Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz’s benzene-ring.
Michael Polanyi
Tacit knowledge

When method goes wrong

Bad science
Junk science
Pseudoscience
Pathological science

Critique of scientific method

Paul Feyerabend argued that the search for a definitive scientific method was misplaced, and even counterproductive.
Imre Lakatos attempted to bridge the gap between Popper and Kuhn.
Sociology of scientific knowledge
Scientism

Use of statistics

Uncomfortable science, due to statistician John Tukey: Inference from a limited sample of data, where further samples influenced by the same causality, a finite natural phenomenon for which it is difficult to overcome the problem of using a common sample of data for both exploratory data analysis and confirmatory data analysis. Statistical bias through testing hypotheses suggested by the data. Prediction interval.

Relationship of scientific method to technology

Technology is subordinate to Science; Scientific discovery rests on technology.

Science and technology studies

Theories of technology

Departures from method

Michael Polanyi
Elegance
Beauty
Occam’s razor
Geocentric model
Nicolaus Copernicus
Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler
Isaac Newton
Galileo Galilei

Persons influential in the development of scientific method

Alhazen
Francis Bacon
Galileo Galilei
René Descartes
Charles Sanders Peirce

See also

Bayesian probability
Quasi-empirical methods
Foundation ontology
Ontology
Philosophy of mathematics
Mathematics
Epistemology
Post-processual archaeology is a methodological curiosity from Archaeology.
Structuralism
Post-structuralism
Deconstruction
Postmodernism
Latour, Bruno
Secularism-
Physical law
Science policy
Scientific Revolution
Sociology of knowledge
Science studies

32 responses to “Outline of Scientic Method

  1. In high school, we are taught the basics of the scientific method. I had no idea there were so many parts to it. This really needs to be an in-depth topic because there are so many pieces that fit in this puzzle. This is a good piece of material to study for the final.

  2. This was a very intense and thorough list. I have been studying this as much as I can for the final. I know that it will serve me well to know it.

  3. Elise G. Richardson

    I have yet to take a science college course, my K-12 system only taught me that their is 6 stages of the scientific method, but this outline goes in depth about other categories and sub categories I never knew about.

  4. My science teachers have a lot of explaining to do… They didn’t even scrape the surface of the scientific method, this is all new to me.

  5. My science teachers have a lot of explaining to do… They didn’t even scrap the surface of the scientific method, this is all new to me.

  6. I always thought that the scientific method was a bit to complicated when i first learned about in high school. But now I’m beginning to learn more about it and how it works. It is very interesting to learn that you can not prove a theory is correct only disprove a theory.

  7. The Scientific Method should be a course and not just a topic. The understanding that it was developed over the centuries by various scientists who would be envious of the tools we use today to further its development with their logic. I must admit that I have never had much interests in science but I do understand that without it I may not be here today. I will continue to extend my studies to grasp more of its concepts to further my understandings.

  8. The scientific method is a large part in developing a truth in science. Many scientist use the scientific method to try and prove others wrong, this sense of competition makes science grow.

  9. My Bio professor at RCC taught me the “correct” definition that Professor Kollitz discussed in class several times before. The Scientific method is a way to disprove other theories and it can not prove anything. It can only suggest it is a theory and be peer reviewed vigorously until the reviewers see there is nothing they can disprove then it can either stay a theory or become a law. An example is Newton’s Law of Gravity.

  10. Miranda B. Barragan

    I have read this method and this “categorizing” of the scientific method in one of my other classes last semester. Howver, before that class I was never taught how complex it is. It amazes me how people are able to understand the scientific method and carry out experiments and gather data based on the diferent categories.

  11. This link and post was very helpful. I thought the scientific method was just of the componets: observation, hypothesis, prediction, experiment, and evaluation. But there is more to the scientific method. The whole process and how it became is very complex.

  12. It was a bit difficult to understand what the scientific method is with this explanation, but thanks to the film expelled I was able to understand better what the scientific method is for.

  13. I find the scientific method being complex but should be able to discover its possibilities and for take its understanding. I myself have questions about it and I’m sure others do to and weather or not if they can be answered its interesting and keeps you wondering of whats already known.

  14. I think this lays out the scientific method pretty well. I liked seeing the sciences broken up into categories, some of which I never really thought of as science until looking at them now.

  15. The scientific method is important, but i have read information that it is a flawed system, for when a scientist develops a basic hypothesis about a certain discovery. Such as when we were in grade school and developing a hypothesis for those science projects we always used to do. You’d say something like, “Will this specific battery power a light bulb better than these other brands?” And you’d do the experiments, and either you’re right, or wrong. Basically the method forces you to have your hypothesis come out as true, however with a scientific theory, it’s more flexible and you can have enough evidence to prove or disapprove it

  16. Katarina Ponomaroff

    The scientific method appears to be very complex and made up of many components. I have never been taught the scientific method, all I know is the research I have done myself. This outline helps extend my knowledge passed from what I already know which is observation, hypothesis, experiment, and conclusion.

  17. The scientific method is very important to obtaining truths in our world. We must look at all possibilities and study things very carefully to make sure something is right and tested many times.

  18. After watching the video expelled and learning more about this topic i found it very interesting because of what i learned about this in highschool.

  19. After watching the film Expelled I thought I was very much familiar with the scientific method, however after reading all this, it kind of threw me a little off. But I intend on rereading this carefully to fully understand it.

  20. This scientific method has a lot more details than I expected. The one I learned in high school only had five to six steps in it. I wish I would have learned this one because it has so much more information that is useful than the one I learned in high school.

  21. So much for a five step process. The scientific method is way more complex with detail than I thought. It’s fascinating to see how much work is put into projects to create the complex theories we have today. I would definitely love to learn more about it.

  22. The film Expelled does a better explanation of the scientific method and helps you better understand. This helps but not as much, definitely reccommend watching the video to understand this fully. The video definitely makes you think.

  23. Part of the reason we take a broad array of subjects in higher education is so we can apply the teachings of each respective subject to others. The scientific method is one such teaching that can be easily applied in other areas though lately, there is an inability to recall and subsequently apply the method for lack of constant reintroduction by our failing K-12 system. Failure to grasp a working understanding of the scientific method is detrimental to one’s excelsior striving.

  24. William J. Gonzales

    The scientific method is somewhat familiar to me. I have learned a portion of it in some of my past classes in high school. I do not completely understand the concept of Scientific method, but i know it enough it apply it to some works of science.

  25. Samantha R. Cimilluca

    This is just an outline of the scientific method and it is unfinished. There is a lot more to it that I thought. I am used to using it in all my science courses which would be only the part where it says “elements of the scientific method.” Just when I think I know something, I find out that I truly don’t. I know how to apply it in my science courses, but I do not know the history behind it.

  26. I knew the basics of the scientific method (observation, hypothesis, prediction, experimentation, and evaluation) but I never realized there could be more. But, I’ll be honest, this kind of makes me a little bit more confused…

  27. I remember learning about this but it’s been a while and the details are still hazy. I would definitely like to know more about it.

  28. The scientific method is still quite unclear to me. I have learned it briefly in some of my past classes but it has yet to fully stick since those were back in high school. I found an interesting video on youtube that explained the scientific method through a funny cartoon clip but my computer has been running poorly and my youtube history was deleted along with all my web history. Story of my life with technology!

  29. Priscilla K. Cornejo

    Yea there is actually way more that I’m still confused about, I can understand some to a certain extent but I do hope to learn more. Hope to learn more in class.

  30. I am in Microeconomics right now and I have been taught by my professor the basic concepts of the scientific method. I understand some of the concepts of scientific method somewhat but I do not have a complete understanding of it.

  31. There is more then I knew about this subject, will you be going over this in Class?

    • This page is a work in progess and not completly filled in. I am preparing a very short explanation about the scientific method for those who have not taken many or any college science courses where they would be using this basic information in a K-12 setting. I could see on people’s faces that my explanation was not clear, wo I will get this completed today or tomorrow and paste it at this location. I will also discuss it in class and with any student who is still unclear. Ben Steins movie Expelled goes into detail explaining this is a way everyone can understand, but I want to make certain everyone understands. Good understanding promotes good writing. Thanks for your message. Jan Kollitz

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