Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes

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1651

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LEVIATHAN OR THE MATTER,
FORME, & POWER OF A COMMON-WEALTH
ECCLESIASTICAL AND CIVILL
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury
Printed for Andrew Crooke,
at the Green Dragon
in St. Paul’s Churchyard,
1651.

TO MY MOST HONOR’D FRIEND Mr. FRANCIS GODOLPHIN of GODOLPHIN
HONOR’D SIR.
Your most worthy Brother Mr SIDNEY GODOLPHIN, when he lived, was pleas’d to think my studies something, and otherwise to oblige me, as you know, with reall testimonies of his good opinion, great in themselves, and the greater for the worthinesse of his person. For there is not any vertue that disposeth a man, either to the service of God, or to the service of his Country, to Civill Society, or private Friendship, that did not manifestly appear in his conversation, not as acquired by necessity, or affected upon occasion, but inhaerent, and shining in a generous constitution of his nature. Therefore in honour and gratitude to him, and with devotion to your selfe, I humbly Dedicate unto you this my discourse of Common-wealth. I know not how the world will receive it, nor how it may reflect on those that shall seem to favour it. For in a way beset with those that contend on one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority, ’tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded. But yet, me thinks, the endeavour to advance the Civill Power, should not be by the Civill Power condemned; nor private men, by reprehending it, declare they think that Power too great. Besides, I speak not of the men, but (in the Abstract) of the Seat of Power, (like to those simple and unpartiall creatures in the Roman Capitol, that with their noyse defended those within it, not because they were they, but there) offending none, I think, but those without, or such within (if there be any such) as favour them. That which perhaps may most offend, are certain Texts of Holy Scripture, alledged by me to other purpose than ordinarily they use to be by others. But I have done it with due submission, and also (in order to my Subject) necessarily; for they are the Outworks of the Enemy, from whence they impugne the Civill Power. If notwithstanding this, you find my labour generally decryed, you may be pleased to excuse your selfe, and say that I am a man that love my own opinions, and think all true I say, that I honoured your Brother, and honour you, and have presum’d on that, to assume the Title (without your knowledge) of being, as I am,

Sir,

Your most humble, and most obedient servant, Thomas Hobbes.

Paris APRILL 15/25 1651.

Contents

PART One

OF MAN

  • CHAPTER I. OF SENSE
  • CHAPTER II. OF IMAGINATION
  • CHAPTER III. OF THE CONSEQUENCE OR TRAYNE OF IMAGINATIONS
  • CHAPTER IV. OF SPEECH
  • CHAPTER V. OF REASON, AND SCIENCE
  • CHAPTER VI. OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONS
  • CHAPTER VII. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE
  • CHAPTER VIII. OF THE VERTUES COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUAL
  • CHAPTER IX. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE
  • CHAPTER X. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR AND WORTHINESS
  • CHAPTER XI. OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS
  • CHAPTER XII. OF RELIGION
  • CHAPTER XIII. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND
  • CHAPTER XIV. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACTS
  • CHAPTER XV. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATURE
  • CHAPTER XVI. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATED
  • CHAPTER XVII. OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF A
  • CHAPTER XVIII. OF THE RIGHTS OF SOVERAIGNES BY INSTITUTION
  • CHAPTER XIX. OF THE SEVERALL KINDS OF COMMON-WEALTH BY INSTITUTION,
  • CHAPTER XX. OF DOMINION PATERNALL AND DESPOTICALL
  • Wherein Different From A Common-wealth By Institution
  • The Rights Of Soveraignty The Same In Both
  • Dominion Paternall How Attained Not By Generation, But By Contract
  • Or Education;
  • Or Precedent Subjection Of One Of The Parents To The Other
  • The Right Of Succession Followeth The Rules Of The Rights Of Possession
  • Despoticall Dominion, How Attained
  • Not By The Victory, But By The Consent Of The Vanquished
  • Difference Between A Family And A Kingdom
  • The Right Of Monarchy From Scripture
  • Soveraign Power Ought In All Common-wealths To Be Absolute
  • CHAPTER XXI. OF THE LIBERTY OF SUBJECTS
  • Liberty What
  • What It Is To Be Free
  • Feare And Liberty Consistent
  • Liberty And Necessity Consistent
  • Artificiall Bonds, Or Covenants
  • Liberty Of Subjects Consisteth In Liberty From Covenants
  • Liberty Of The Subject Consistent With Unlimited Power Of The Soveraign
  • The Liberty Which Writers Praise, Is The Liberty Of Soveraigns;
  • Liberty Of The Subject How To Be Measured
  • Subjects Have Liberty To Defend Their Own Bodies,
  • Are Not Bound To Hurt Themselves;
  • Nor To Warfare, Unless They Voluntarily Undertake It
  • The Greatest Liberty Of Subjects, Dependeth On The Silence Of The Law
  • In What Cases Subjects Absolved Of Their Obedience To Their Soveraign
  • In Case Of Captivity
  • In Case The Soveraign Cast Off The Government From Himself And Heyrs
  • In Case Of Banishment
  • In Case The Soveraign Render Himself Subject To Another
  • CHAPTER XXII. OF SYSTEMES SUBJECT, POLITICALL, AND PRIVATE
  • The Divers Sorts Of Systemes Of People
  • In All Bodies Politique The Power Of The Representative Is Limited
  • By Letters Patents
  • And The Lawes
  • When The Representative Is One Man, His Unwarranted Acts His Own Onely
  • When It Is An Assembly, It Is The Act Of Them That Assented Onely
  • When It Is An Assembly, They Onely Are Liable That Have Assented
  • If The Debt Be To One Of The Assembly, The Body Onely Is Obliged
  • Protestation Against The Decrees Of Bodies Politique
  • Bodies Politique For Government Of A Province, Colony, Or Town
  • Bodies Politique For Ordering Of Trade
  • A Bodie Politique For Counsel To Be Give To The Soveraign
  • A Regular Private Body, Lawfull, As A Family
  • Private Bodies Regular, But Unlawfull
  • Systemes Irregular, Such As Are Private Leagues
  • Secret Cabals
  • Feuds Of Private Families
  • Factions For Government
  • CHAPTER XXIII. OF THE PUBLIQUE MINISTERS OF SOVERAIGN POWER
  • Publique Minister Who
  • Ministers For The Generall Administration
  • For Speciall Administration, As For Oeconomy
  • For Instruction Of The People
  • For Judicature
  • For Execution
  • Counsellers Without Other Employment Then To Advise
  • CHAPTER XXIV. OF THE NUTRITION, AND PROCREATION OF A COMMON-WEALTH
  • And The Right Of Distribution Of Them
  • All Private Estates Of Land Proceed Originally
  • Propriety Of A Subject Excludes Not The Dominion Of The Soveraign,
  • The Publique Is Not To Be Dieted
  • The Places And Matter Of Traffique Depend, As Their Distribution,
  • The Laws Of Transferring Property Belong Also To The Soveraign
  • Mony The Bloud Of A Common-wealth
  • The Conduits And Way Of Mony To The Publique Use
  • The Children Of A Common-wealth Colonies
  • CHAPTER XXV. OF COUNSELL
  • Counsell What
  • Differences Between Command And Counsell
  • Exhortation And Dehortation What
  • Differences Of Fit And Unfit Counsellours
  • CHAPTER XXVI. OF CIVILL LAWES
  • Civill Law what
  • The Soveraign Is Legislator
  • And Not Subject To Civill Law
  • Use, A Law Not By Vertue Of Time, But Of The Soveraigns Consent
  • The Law Of Nature, And The Civill Law Contain Each Other
  • Provinciall Lawes Are Not Made By Custome, But By The Soveraign Power
  • Some Foolish Opinions Of Lawyers Concerning The Making Of Lawes
  • Law Made, If Not Also Made Known, Is No Law
  • Unwritten Lawes Are All Of Them Lawes Of Nature
  • Nothing Is Law Where The Legislator Cannot Be Known
  • Difference Between Verifying And Authorising
  • The Law Verifyed By The Subordinate Judge
  • By The Publique Registers
  • By Letters Patent, And Publique Seale
  • The Interpretation Of The Law Dependeth On The Soveraign Power
  • All Lawes Need Interpretation
  • The Authenticall Interpretation Of Law Is Not That Of Writers
  • The Interpreter Of The Law Is The Judge Giving Sentence Viva Voce
  • The Sentence Of A Judge, Does Not Bind Him, Or Another Judge
  • The Difference Between The Letter And Sentence Of The Law
  • The Abilities Required In A Judge
  • Divisions Of Law
  • Another Division Of Law
  • Divine Positive Law How Made Known To Be Law
  • Another Division Of Lawes
  • A Fundamentall Law What
  • Difference Between Law And Right
  • And Between A Law And A Charter
  • CHAPTER XXVII. OF CRIMES, EXCUSES, AND EXTENUATIONS
  • A Crime What
  • Where No Civill Law Is, There Is No Crime
  • Ignorance Of The Law Of Nature Excuseth No Man
  • Ignorance Of The Civill Law Excuseth Sometimes
  • Ignorance Of The Soveraign Excuseth Not
  • Ignorance Of The Penalty Excuseth Not
  • Punishments Declared Before The Fact, Excuse From Greater Punishments
  • Nothing Can Be Made A Crime By A Law Made After The Fact
  • False Principles Of Right And Wrong Causes Of Crime
  • False Teachers Mis-interpreting The Law Of Nature Secondly, by false
  • And False Inferences From True Principles, By Teachers
  • By Their Passions;
  • Presumption Of Riches
  • And Friends
  • Wisedome
  • Hatred, Lust, Ambition, Covetousnesse, Causes Of Crime
  • Fear Sometimes Cause Of Crime, As When The Danger Is Neither Present,
  • Crimes Not Equall
  • Totall Excuses
  • Excuses Against The Author
  • Presumption Of Power, Aggravateth
  • Evill Teachers, Extenuate
  • Examples Of Impunity, Extenuate
  • Praemeditation, Aggravateth
  • Tacite Approbation Of The Soveraign, Extenuates
  • Comparison Of Crimes From Their Effects
  • Laesae Majestas
  • Bribery And False Testimony
  • Depeculation
  • Counterfeiting Authority
  • Crimes Against Private Men Compared
  • Publique Crimes What
  • CHAPTER XXVIII. OF PUNISHMENTS, AND REWARDS
  • The Definition Of Punishment
  • Right To Punish Whence Derived
  • Private Injuries, And Revenges No Punishments
  • Nor Denyall Of Preferment
  • Nor Pain Inflicted Without Publique Hearing
  • Nor Pain Inflicted By Usurped Power
  • Nor Pain Inflicted Without Respect To The Future Good
  • Naturall Evill Consequences, No Punishments
  • Hurt Inflicted, If Lesse Than The Benefit Of Transgressing,
  • Where The Punishment Is Annexed To The Law, A Greater Hurt Is Not
  • Hurt Inflicted For A Fact Done Before The Law, No Punishment
  • The Representative Of The Common-wealth Unpunishable
  • Hurt To Revolted Subjects Is Done By Right Of War, Not
  • Punishments Corporall
  • Capitall
  • Ignominy
  • Imprisonment
  • Exile
  • The Punishment Of Innocent Subjects Is Contrary To The Law Of Nature
  • But The Harme Done To Innocents In War, Not So
  • Reward, Is Either Salary, Or Grace
  • Benefits Bestowed For Fear, Are Not Rewards
  • Salaries Certain And Casuall
  • CHAPTER XXIX. OF THOSE THINGS THAT WEAKEN, OR TEND TO THE DISSOLUTION OF
  • Want Of Absolute Power
  • Private Judgement Of Good and Evill
  • Erroneous Conscience
  • Pretence Of Inspiration
  • Subjecting The Soveraign Power To Civill Lawes
  • Attributing Of Absolute Propriety To The Subjects
  • Dividing Of The Soveraign Power
  • Imitation Of Neighbour Nations
  • Imitation Of The Greeks, And Romans
  • Mixt Government
  • Want Of Mony
  • Monopolies And Abuses Of Publicans
  • Popular Men
  • Excessive Greatnesse Of A Town, Multitude Of Corporations
  • Liberty Of Disputing Against Soveraign Power
  • Dissolution Of The Common-wealth
  • CHAPTER XXX. OF THE OFFICE OF THE SOVERAIGN REPRESENTATIVE
  • The Procuration Of The Good Of The People
  • By Instruction & Lawes
  • Against The Duty Of A Soveraign To Relinquish Any Essentiall Right
  • Objection Of Those That Say There Are No Principles Of Reason For
  • Objection From The Incapacity Of The Vulgar
  • Subjects Are To Be Taught, Not To Affect Change Of Government
  • Nor Adhere (Against The Soveraign) To Popular Men
  • And To Have Dayes Set Apart To Learn Their Duty
  • And To Honour Their Parents
  • And To Avoyd Doing Of Injury:
  • And To Do All This Sincerely From The Heart
  • The Use Of Universities
  • Equall Taxes
  • Publique Charity
  • Prevention Of Idlenesse
  • Good Lawes What
  • Such As Are Necessary
  • Such As Are Perspicuous
  • Punishments
  • Rewards
  • Counsellours
  • Commanders
  • CHAPTER XXXI. OF THE KINGDOME OF GOD BY NATURE
  • The Scope Of The Following Chapters
  • Who Are Subjects In The Kingdome Of God
  • A Threefold Word Of God, Reason, Revelation, Prophecy
  • Sinne Not The Cause Of All Affliction
  • Divine Lawes
  • Honour And Worship What
  • Severall Signes Of Honour
  • Worship Naturall And Arbitrary
  • Worship Commanded And Free
  • Worship Publique And Private
  • The End Of Worship
  • Attributes Of Divine Honour
  • Actions That Are Signes Of Divine Honour
  • Publique Worship Consisteth In Uniformity
  • All Attributes Depend On The Lawes Civill
  • Not All Actions
  • Naturall Punishments
  • The Conclusion Of The Second Part
  • PART III. OF A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH
  • CHAPTER XXXII. OF THE PRINCIPLES OF CHRISTIAN POLITIQUES
  • What It Is To Captivate The Understanding
  • How God Speaketh To Men
  • By What Marks Prophets Are Known
  • The Marks Of A Prophet In The Old Law, Miracles, And Doctrine
  • Miracles Ceasing, Prophets Cease, The Scripture Supplies Their Place
  • CHAPTER XXXIII. OF THE NUMBER, ANTIQUITY, SCOPE, AUTHORITY,
  • Of The Books Of Holy Scripture
  • Their Antiquity
  • The Pentateuch Not Written By Moses
  • The Book of Joshua Written After His Time
  • The Booke Of Judges And Ruth Written Long After The Captivity
  • The Like Of The Bookes Of Samuel
  • The Books Of The Kings, And The Chronicles
  • Ezra And Nehemiah
  • Esther
  • Job
  • The Psalter
  • The Proverbs
  • Ecclesiastes And The Canticles
  • The Prophets
  • The New Testament
  • Their Scope
  • The Question Of The Authority Of The Scriptures Stated.
  • Their Authority And Interpretation
  • CHAPTER XXXIV. OF THE SIGNIFICATION OF SPIRIT, ANGEL, AND INSPIRATION IN
  • Body And Spirit How Taken In The Scripture
  • Spirit Of God Taken In The Scripture Sometimes For A Wind, Or Breath
  • Secondly, For Extraordinary Gifts Of The Understanding
  • Thirdly, For Extraordinary Affections
  • Fourthly, For The Gift Of Prediction By Dreams And Visions
  • Fiftly, For Life
  • Sixtly, For A Subordination To Authority
  • Seventhly, For Aeriall Bodies
  • Angel What
  • Inspiration What
  • CHAPTER XXXV. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF KINGDOME OF GOD, OF
  • Kingdom Of God Taken By Divines Metaphorically But In The Scriptures
  • The Originall Of The Kingdome Of God
  • That The Kingdome Of God Is Properly His Civill Soveraignty Over
  • Sacred What
  • Degrees of Sanctity
  • Sacrament
  • CHAPTER XXXVI. OF THE WORD OF GOD, AND OF PROPHETS
  • Word What
  • The Words Spoken By God And Concerning God, Both Are Called Gods Word
  • Secondly, For The Effect Of His Word
  • Thirdly, For The Words Of Reason And Equity
  • Divers Acceptions Of The Word Prophet
  • Praediction Of Future Contingents, Not Alwaies Prophecy
  • The Manner How God Hath Spoken To The Prophets
  • To The Extraordinary Prophets Of The Old Testament He Spake
  • God Sometimes Also Spake By Lots
  • Every Man Ought To Examine The Probability Of A Pretended Prophets
  • All Prophecy But Of The Soveraign Prophet Is To Be Examined
  • CHAPTER XXXVII. OF MIRACLES, AND THEIR USE
  • A Miracle Is A Work That Causeth Admiration
  • And Must Therefore Be Rare, Whereof There Is No Naturall Cause Known
  • That Which Seemeth A Miracle To One Man, May Seem Otherwise To Another
  • The End Of Miracles
  • The Definition Of A Miracle
  • That Men Are Apt To Be Deceived By False Miracles
  • Cautions Against The Imposture Of Miracles
  • CHAPTER XXXVIII. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF ETERNALL LIFE,
  • Place Of Adams Eternity If He Had Not Sinned, The Terrestrial Paradise
  • Texts Concerning The Place Of Life Eternall For Beleevers
  • Ascension Into Heaven
  • The Place After Judgment, Of Those Who Were Never In The Kingdome
  • The Congregation Of Giants
  • Lake Of Fire
  • Utter Darknesse
  • Gehenna, And Tophet
  • Of The Literall Sense Of The Scripture Concerning Hell
  • Satan, Devill, Not Proper Names, But Appellatives
  • Torments Of Hell
  • The Joyes Of Life Eternall, And Salvation The Same Thing,
  • The Place Of Eternall Salvation
  • Redemption
  • CHAPTER XXXIX. OF THE SIGNIFICATION IN SCRIPTURE OF THE WORD CHURCH
  • Church The Lords House
  • Ecclesia Properly What
  • In What Sense The Church Is One Person Church Defined
  • A Christian Common-wealth, And A Church All One
  • CHAPTER XL
  • The Soveraign Rights Of Abraham
  • Abraham Had The Sole Power Of Ordering The Religion Of His Own People
  • No Pretence Of Private Spirit Against The Religion Of Abraham
  • Abraham Sole Judge, And Interpreter Of What God Spake
  • The Authority Of Moses Whereon Grounded
  • Moses Was (Under God) Soveraign Of The Jews, All His Own Time,
  • All Spirits Were Subordinate To The Spirit Of Moses
  • After Moses The Soveraignty Was In The High Priest
  • Of The Soveraign Power Between The Time Of Joshua And Of Saul
  • Of The Rights Of The Kings Of Israel
  • The Practice Of Supremacy In Religion, Was Not In The Time Of The Kings,
  • After The Captivity The Jews Had No Setled Common-wealth
  • CHAPTER XLI. OF THE OFFICE OF OUR BLESSED SAVIOUR
  • Three Parts Of The Office Of Christ
  • His Office As A Redeemer
  • Christs Kingdome Not Of This World
  • The End Of Christs Comming Was To Renew The Covenant Of The Kingdome
  • Part Of His Office
  • The Preaching Of Christ Not Contrary To The Then Law Of The Jews,
  • The Third Part Of His Office Was To Be King (Under His Father)
  • Christs Authority In The Kingdome Of God Subordinate To His Father
  • One And The Same God Is The Person Represented By Moses, And By Christ
  • CHAPTER XLII. OF POWER ECCLESIASTICALL
  • Of The Holy Spirit That Fel On The Apostles
  • Of The Trinity
  • The Power Ecclesiasticall Is But The Power To Teach
  • An Argument Thereof, The Power Of Christ Himself
  • From The Name Of Regeneration
  • From The Comparison Of It, With Fishing, Leaven, Seed
  • From The Nature Of Faith:
  • From The Authority Christ Hath Left To Civill Princes
  • What Christians May Do To Avoid Persecution
  • Of Martyrs
  • Argument From The Points Of Their Commission
  • To Preach
  • And Teach
  • To Baptize;
  • And To Forgive, And Retain Sinnes
  • Of Excommunication
  • The Use Of Excommunication Without Civill Power.
  • Of No Effect Upon An Apostate
  • But Upon The Faithfull Only
  • For What Fault Lyeth Excommunication
  • Of Persons Liable To Excommunication
  • Of The Interpreter Of The Scriptures Before Civill Soveraigns
  • Of The Power To Make Scripture Law
  • Of The Ten Commandements
  • Of The Judicial, And Leviticall Law
  • The Second Law
  • The Old Testament, When Made Canonicall
  • Of The Power Of Councells To Make The Scripture Law
  • Of The Right Of Constituting Ecclesiasticall Officers In The Time
  • Matthias Made Apostle By The Congregation.
  • Paul And Barnabas Made Apostles By The Church Of Antioch
  • What Offices In The Church Are Magisteriall
  • Ordination Of Teachers
  • Ministers Of The Church What
  • And How Chosen What
  • Of Ecclesiasticall Revenue, Under The Law Of Moses
  • In Our Saviours Time, And After
  • The Civill Soveraign Being A Christian Hath The Right Of Appointing
  • The Pastorall Authority Of Soveraigns Only Is De Jure Divino,
  • Christian Kings Have Power To Execute All Manner Of Pastoral Function
  • The Civill Soveraigne If A Christian, Is Head Of The Church
  • Cardinal Bellarmines Books De Summo Pontifice Considered
  • The First Book
  • The Second Book
  • The Third Book
  • The Fourth Book
  • Texts For The Infallibility Of The Popes Judgement In Points Of Faith
  • Texts For The Same In Point Of Manners
  • Of The Popes Temporall Power
  • CHAPTER XLIII. OF WHAT IS NECESSARY FOR A MANS RECEPTION INTO THE
  • The Difficulty Of Obeying God And Man Both At Once
  • Is None To Them That Distinguish Between What Is, And What Is Not
  • All That Is Necessary To Salvation Is Contained In Faith And Obedience
  • What Obedience Is Necessary;
  • And To What Laws
  • In The Faith Of A Christian, Who Is The Person Beleeved
  • The Causes Of Christian Faith
  • Faith Comes By Hearing
  • Proved From The Scope Of The Evangelists
  • From The Sermons Of The Apostles:
  • From The Easinesse Of The Doctrine:
  • From Formall And Cleer Texts
  • From That It Is The Foundation Of All Other Articles
  • In What Sense Other Articles May Be Called Necessary
  • That Faith, And Obedience Are Both Of Them Necessary To Salvation
  • What Each Of Them Contributes Thereunto
  • Obedience To God And To The Civill Soveraign Not Inconsistent
  • Or Infidel
  • CHAPTER XLIV. OF SPIRITUALL DARKNESSE FROM MISINTERPRETATION OF
  • The Kingdome Of Darknesse What
  • The Church Not Yet Fully Freed Of Darknesse
  • Four Causes Of Spirituall Darknesse
  • Errors From Misinterpreting The Scriptures, Concerning The Kingdome
  • As That The Kingdome Of God Is The Present Church
  • And That The Pope Is His Vicar Generall
  • And That The Pastors Are The Clergy
  • Error From Mistaking Consecration For Conjuration
  • Incantation In The Ceremonies Of Baptisme
  • In Marriage, In Visitation Of The Sick, And In Consecration Of Places
  • Errors From Mistaking Eternall Life, And Everlasting Death
  • As The Doctrine Of Purgatory, And Exorcismes, And Invocation Of Saints
  • The Texts Alledged For The Doctrines Aforementioned Have Been Answered
  • Answer To The Text On Which Beza Infereth
  • Explication Of The Place In Mark 9.1
  • Abuse Of Some Other Texts In Defence Of The Power Of The Pope
  • The Manner Of Consecrations In The Scripture, Was Without Exorcisms
  • The Immortality Of Mans Soule, Not Proved By Scripture To Be Of Nature,
  • Eternall Torments What
  • Answer Of The Texts Alledged For Purgatory
  • Places Of The New Testament For Purgatory Answered
  • Baptisme For The Dead, How Understood
  • CHAPTER XLV. OF DAEMONOLOGY, AND OTHER RELIQUES OF THE RELIGION OF THE
  • The Originall Of Daemonology
  • What Were The Daemons Of The Ancients
  • How That Doctrine Was Spread
  • Why Our Saviour Controlled It Not
  • The Scriptures Doe Not Teach That Spirits Are Incorporeall
  • The Power Of Casting Out Devills, Not The Same It Was In The Primitive
  • Another Relique Of Gentilisme, Worshipping Images, Left In The Church
  • Answer To Certain Seeming Texts For Images
  • What Is Worship
  • Distinction Between Divine And Civill Worship
  • An Image What Phantasmes
  • Fictions; Materiall Images
  • Idolatry What
  • Scandalous Worship Of Images
  • Answer To The Argument From The Cherubins, And Brazen Serpent
  • Painting Of Fancies No Idolatry: Abusing Them To Religious Worship Is
  • How Idolatry Was Left In The Church
  • Canonizing Of Saints
  • The Name Of Pontifex
  • Procession Of Images
  • Wax Candles, And Torches Lighted
  • CHAPTER XLVI. OF DARKNESSE FROM VAIN PHILOSOPHY, AND FABULOUS TRADITIONS
  • What Philosophy Is
  • Prudence No Part Of Philosophy
  • No False Doctrine Is Part Of Philosophy
  • Nor Learning Taken Upon Credit Of Authors
  • Of The Beginnings And Progresse Of Philosophy
  • Of The Schools Of Philosophy Amongst The Athenians
  • Of The Schools Of The Jews
  • The Schoole Of Graecians Unprofitable
  • The Schools Of The Jews Unprofitable
  • University What It Is
  • Errors Brought Into Religion From Aristotles Metaphysiques
  • Errors Concerning Abstract Essences
  • Nunc-stans
  • One Body In Many Places, And Many Bodies In One Place At Once
  • Absurdities In Naturall Philosophy, As Gravity The Cause Of Heavinesse
  • Quantity Put Into Body Already Made
  • Powring In Of Soules
  • Ubiquity Of Apparition
  • Will, The Cause Of Willing
  • Ignorance An Occult Cause
  • One Makes The Things Incongruent, Another The Incongruity
  • Private Appetite The Rule Of Publique Good:
  • And That Lawfull Marriage Is Unchastity
  • And That All Government But Popular, Is Tyranny
  • That Not Men, But Law Governs
  • Laws Over The Conscience
  • Private Interpretation Of Law
  • Language Of Schoole-Divines
  • Errors From Tradition
  • Suppression Of Reason
  • CHAPTER XLVII. OF THE BENEFIT THAT PROCEEDETH FROM SUCH DARKNESSE,
  • He That Receiveth Benefit By A Fact, Is Presumed To Be The Author
  • That The Church Militant Is The Kingdome Of God, Was First Taught By
  • And Maintained Also By The Presbytery
  • Infallibility
  • Subjection Of Bishops
  • Exemptions Of The Clergy
  • The Names Of Sacerdotes, And Sacrifices
  • The Sacramentation Of Marriage
  • The Single Life Of Priests
  • Auricular Confession
  • Canonization Of Saints, And Declaring Of Martyrs
  • Transubstantiation, Penance, Absolution
  • Purgatory, Indulgences, Externall Works
  • Daemonology And Exorcism
  • School-Divinity
  • The Authors Of Spirituall Darknesse, Who They Be
  • Comparison Of The Papacy With The Kingdome Of Fayries
  • A REVIEW, AND CONCLUSION